Parallel Structures of Networks of Relationships

Structure - Collaborative into Hierarchy
One of the questions that continues to dominate many of the conversations that I have with organizational leaders is the one related to how they should structure their business.

For example, yesterday in a conversation with a friend and client, we discussed the role of the administrative assistant in his business. Like many small businesses, this role has shifted from an essential one to a discretionary one. Many employment positions have gone away because the benefit does not match their cost.

The issue isn't whether the tasks that these people do are not valuable.

The issue is whether the role as defined is.

This is a picture of the shift being taken in many places from a traditional hierarchical business structure to one that I call a parallel one. This parallel structure is a network of relationships.


As you can see by this chart, there are some real differences between the traditional approach to organizing a business, and one built around relationships.  This shift is hard for everyone who has spent their work life in a hierarchical structure.

In the traditional approach, a person is hired to fill a position. That position has a job description that outlines the specific tasks and responsibilities that they are to do. The employee's expectation is that is what their time at work will be like each day. Completing tasks that are assigned through the organizational design of the company. Responsibility is passed down to the employee,while authority is held at the top. This system worked well during an era of easy growth and social continuity.  It does so because the ultimate purpose of the organization is institutional integrity.

In a network of relationships parallel structure, the job description is also relational. It means that the individual's character and engagement with people is part of what makes them a valued employee. Some may think this has always been true. And that is correct. These parallel structures of relationships have always formed when a specific need emerges. But they were seen as temporary or adhoc, not a permanent or essential part of the organization's structure.

What We Want

The greatest business failure of the past thirty years has not been scandals or financial collapses. It is the failure of business to understand the value of their employees. This failure originates in the structure of businesses.

If employees are functionaries in an administrative, production system, then their value is diminished, by let say at least 30%, and in some cases twice that.

If the business is organized to create order, then employees are hired to comply with that order. Institutional integrity becomes the goal of the organization.

However, in a network of relationships model, people bring much more to their work. This is what the team building movement has been teaching us for a generation. How people relate and work together is a key ingredient in an organization's success.

I suspect though that here again the value of the individual to company is still not perceived well.

If you were to sit down with each employee for coffee and talk about their lives, you would find what I am finding. There are three things that they want. Everyone says them differently, but they can be summarized simply. 

Life-Work Goals
People want their lives and work to be

Personally Meaningful,

          Socially Fulfilling, and

                    Make a Difference that Matters.

This is what we all want. We want the values that matter to us to be central in how we live. We want some kind of purpose for our lives. There needs to be a point to it.

We also want our relationships to be healthy and whole. We don't like conflict. We don't like to be manipulated, to be taken for granted, or to be used for someone's selfish purposes. We want to walk into work hopeful and excited about the opportunity to share my day with the people with whom I work.

We want to feel at the end of the day that we did something that made a difference. Listen to what people say when they talk about a good day. One where they accomplished something. They overcame a challenge or an obstacle and succeeded at it. Also, they did something for someone else that was appreciated. It made a difference. There was real satisfaction in helping solve person's problems. That's what we want.

The Circle of Impact Connection

The lesson for me when I began to see this picture emerge is how congruent it was to the three dimensions of leadership that I had identified as the Circle of Impact.

Circle of Impact- simple
The three dimensions that command every leader's attention are Ideas, Relationships and Structure. We tend to segregate them, thinking that it is easier that way. Instead it creates confusion and greater complexity. That is why the four Connecting Ideas - Purpose or Mission, Values, Vision and Impact - are essential tools for helping link together the three dimensions.  And it begins by clarifying the Connecting Ideas.

The Circle of Impact applies to both kinds of structures, traditional and parallel, because this is a basic, fundamental understanding of all organizations, regardless of type. Every organization must address its ideology, its social context and how the business is structured to achieve impact. All of them. However, here's the difference.

The parallel structure, described above, is a Network of Relationships. Just like in a traditional hierarchical setting, this organizational structure requires attention to the Connecting Ideas, relationships and the organization of their work.

Networks of Relationships are formed around a Shared Mission and Shared Responsibility, where leadership, authority and responsibility to contribute are shared.

From this perspective of Shared Leadership, the responsibility of the individual is to take initiative to create impact. This is the most basic contribution of the team member. And because the group is organized as a network of relationships, their collaboration and communication is an essential focus of their relationships.

Three Contributions

Most of us have experienced team work where there was a genuine experience of coming together as a group of shared purpose and contribution. And most likely, we see these experiences as the exceptions in our lives.

Let's return to my conversation with my friend and client about the administrative staff person in his office.

How can this perspective about parallel structures, networks of relationships, shared mission, shared responsibility, shared leadership and impact fit into his traditional business structure?  

It begins with recognizing that each individual has unrealized potential waiting to be released. Everyone of us wants to work in an environment that is personally meaningful, socially fulfilling and makes a difference that matters. If that is so, then the first step is figuring out how those three personal goals can become the basis for the contributions of each person.

As a result, each person contributes that which is personally meaningful. Each person contributes in their interpersonal interaction that which is socially fulfilling. And each person contributes out of their own talent, expertise and character of personal initiative those actions that create the impact that makes a difference that matters.

For each person to do this means that the social structure of the business must change. And this shift is based on what each person shares with the whole of the organization.

Here's the insight that is a key to understanding this organizational change. Because these networks of relationships are parallel structures, they can work along side of, and even within the traditional structures of hierarchy. In fact they always have. But rarely as a core strategy, but rather as a tactical approach to team work. 

We can see this is the way businesses define positions of employment. Instead of focused on contribution, the emphasis has been task oriented. As result, the value of the employee is not realized, and it makes the case for reductions in force must easier to make.

The future belongs to these parallel structures. Let networks of relationships form. Let them take collective initiative to make a difference that matters, then new vitally and impact will emerge.

The Picture of the Future in a Box - Update

Update: Ross Dawson writes about the importance of 3D printing in his post - How 3D printing will transform the retail industry: the opportunities.

This post is a continuation of the ideas presented in The End and The Beginning. In this one, I want to focus on three culture shifts that impact what leadership means in the 21st century.

A picture of the future in a box

Let me begin with this picture. 3dsystems-RapMan-Students-6

Here is a student using a three-dimensional printer. The blue object in the middle of the picture is being printed. This is a kit that individuals can buy for around $1,300.

All you need is a basic CAD program to begin to create prototypes of your ideas. 

I recently saw this model, RapMan 3.1, and the BFB-300 3D printer demonstrated at Hatchfest in Asheville. Rajeev Kulkarni, Vice President of Global Engineering for 3D Systems spoke on the uses of 3D printing.  His presentation described a extremely wide spectrum of application for this technology. The most impressive use of 3D printing is to create human organs from the cells of the recipient. See Antony Atala's TED2011 presentation to grasp the magnitude of this innovation in medicine.

This picture of innovative technology points to the social change that is occurring because of the advance of technology. Besides lowering the cost of prototyping and manufacturing new products, people can now take their ideas from conception to market in a shorter period of time.  Kulkarni spoke about what used to take months to produce that now can be done in a matter hours or days.

Three Shifts

As I listened to Rajeev Kulkarni's Hatch presentation, I realized that in these printers I saw three significant social shifts. When the cost of manufacturing and production time are reduced, and the technology becomes affordable for individual use, then we are moving through a transition period from one era to the next.   The shifts that I see taking place are:

1. From consumers to creators / producers

2. From mass market to mass customization

3. From a mass culture to a local culture

 Let me describe each.

1. From consumers to creators / producers

With the use of basic design software and the RapMan 3d printer, any individual can become a producer of products for sale. The materials that can be used in the printing process are extensive. So, no longer will people have to depend on the marketplace to provide the products that he or she needs. With some ingenuity and business sense, they can make a shift from being a consumer of products to being the creator and producer of them.

Of course, six billion people will not automatically shift from being consumers to creators / producers. And every producer needs consumers to buy her product. Yet, it does not take many people embracing this shift in culture to dramatically impact it. The picture above is of an school girl in England using the RapMan printer.

Imagine every school in your school district having a 3d printer to complete a learning process of idea creation to product completion. Imagine the change of mind that comes to the students in that school when they can create, and not just consume.  Imagine a generation of men and women who think of themselves as creators and producers, as leaders, rather than just consumers of other peoples' creative output. 

One of the first realizations I had about 21st century leadership was that it was about personal initiative, not about roles. Leadership begins with personal initiative. Tools like these 3D printers place into the hands of people the opportunity to initiate, to create, and to produce products and solutions that can make a difference. 

2. From mass market to mass customization

The nature of product development cycles used to be months, even years, necessary to bring a product to market. As a result, it required that product to have as wide an appeal and as long a shelf life as possible. With the advent of technologies, like 3D printers, this is changing. Now in a matter of a few hours, a specialize part can be designed and produced for a customer.

There are a couple implications for this shift.

First, it changes how a company relates to the marketplace. In a one-size fits all world, the marketplace is the lowest common denominator. In a mass customized world, the individual is the market. Marketing to individuals is different than to a mass culture. This is the insight that Chris Anderson wrote about in his book The Long Tail.

Second, it makes the relationship between manufacturer and consumer more important. I've learned this as a consultant. I cannot approach any project as if there is a formula that applies to every other organization in their industry. I have to build a relationship of interest, inquiry and adaptive response to meet not only their expectations, but their needs. I enter into their organizational setting with a set of tools, not unlike a 3D printer, though I don't have one, and use my tools to address the needs that they have.

In a mass customized world, relationships matter, and that is a key to managing the shifts that I'm identifying here.

3. From mass culture to local culture

Prior to the 20th century, life for most people from the beginning of time was experienced in small towns. I remember my grandfather telling me near the end of his long life that the most significant invention in his life time was the radio. When asked why, he said, "Because it showed us what life was like in other places."

The 20th century was a century lived on a global scale, with World Wars and multi-national corporations, and, with institutions that were designed for a mass culture. It was a perspective where one size fits all, and that all people are to be treated a like. Individuality was rebellious and conventionality was the norm.

Those days are slipping away as innovations, like 3D Systems printers, make it possible to create a business that serves customers globally from an office in a small town with an internet connection.  It is the twin developments of innovation for individual productivity and the failure of large organizations to function in a one-size fits all world.

As a result, the meaning of global and local is changing. It is less about a mass market culture of sameness, and more about a culture of relationship where I can serve you, regardless of where you or I live. We can be connected. We can communicate, collaborate and coordinate our projects from wherever we sit today.

It isn't just that we live in a time of the long tail, or that technological innovation provides a basis for mass customization or a better foundation for individual initiative. Each is true. At a deeper level, it means that any individual with a minimum investment can pursue their own sense of calling as a person, and do it in a social context of others who share their vision and commitment. This is an emerging reality that will seriously impact the nature of leadership and organizational design in the future.

One way of understanding this development is to see this as the ascendency of the local. I've written about it here, here and here.

The key to making a local orientation work is openness. For many people, local is just another word for provincial, or closed. However, if local is less physical place, and more a relational space, then we can begin to see that my local can include colleagues in Japan, Pakistan, England, Canada, and my neighbors nearby in Asheville.

In a local community, you share a concern for people, for families, for education systems, the business community and for those less fortunate. It is a concern for the whole person, not just for the transaction.

For example, I can share a concern that my friends in California have for the economic and social conditions of their small coastal town, and feel that as their community grows, that I contribute to their growth.

A local community orientation can function in any social or organizational structure. It is the heart of team work. It brings personal initiative, shared responsibility, and common goals and values together.

Leading Through These Shifts

The implications of these shifts for organizational leaders is fairly simple. It means that instead of being organizational process managers, we must become culture creators. The culture that forms from our leadership provides an open environment for individual initiative, relationship building, and shared responsibility.

The local in this sense is like the ancient Greek polis as described by Victor Davis Hanson in his fascinating book, The Other Greeks: The Family Farm and the Agrarian Roots of Western Civilization. He writes in the introduction,

The early Greek polis has often been called a nexus for exchange, consumption, or acquisition, but it is better to define it as an "agro-service center." Surplus food was brought in from the countryside to be consumed or traded in a forum that concurrently advanced the material, political, social, and cultural agenda of its agrarian members. The buildings and circult walls of a city-state were a testament to the accumulated bounty of generations, its democratic membership a formal acknowledgment of the unique triad of small landowner, infantry soldier, and voting citizen. The "other" Greeks, therefore, were not the dispossessed but the possessors of power and influence. Nor is their story a popular account of slaves, the poor, foreigners, and the numerous other "outsiders" of the ancient Greek city-state. The real Greeks are the farmers and infantrymen, the men and women outside the city, who were the insiders of Greek life and culture.

The rise of independent farmers who owned and worked without encumbrance their small plots at the end of the Greek Dark Ages was an entirely new phenomenon in history. This rougly homogeneous agrarian class was previously unseen in Greece, or anywhere else in Europe and the surrounding Mediterranean area. Their efforts to create a great community of agrarian equals resulted, I believe, in the system of independent but interconnected Greek city-states (poleis) which characterized Western cutlure.

The shifts indentified in this post, to me, point to a similar opportunity that the early Greek farmers had. Through their collaborative relationship of shared responsibility, together they created the Greek polis that remains as the model for what cities and communities are in the West.

The ascendency of the local will come as a result of these shifts. And with it a new conception of leadership as more personal, more collaborative, more focused on impact, will emerge to provide it descriptive power that inspires innovation.

Gratitude: Circle of Impact Conversation Guides

This is the last in a series of post describing the message and use of my Circle of Impact Guides.

Five Actions Gratitude

This guide developed out of a desire to identify how a person and an organization should act when gratitude is the motivation. Gratitude, I've discovered, is a response to another person's kindness.

Aristotle wrote,

Kindness is …
”helpfulness towards someone in need, not in return for anything, nor for the advantage of the helper himself, but for that of the person helped.”

I have written about this idea both here and here.

The purpose behind this guide is a belief that gratitude is not just a feeling, but a way we should live. Therefore, the Five Actions can be described in the following way.

We Say Thanks in Gratefulness.

We Give Back in Service.

We Make Welcome in Hospitality.

We Honor Others in Recognition

We Create Goodness through Personal Leadership that Makes a Difference That Matters

How To Use This Guide:

As a team, talk through each of the actions and identify specific steps that you can take to make each one a part of your team's experience.  It is important to understand that at some level each one of these actions is a gracious response to some person or situation.

For example, to Say Thanks Every Day is to recognize the kindness and generosity of others who have made a difference in your life and work. This is true even of your team who may be the beneficiaries of other teams or individuals.

One of the simplest practices is to write a note of thanks. It is better than an email, a tweet or a text message. It is a sign of effort to write a note and send it by mail.

Another example is how we practice hospitality. (I wrote about this in my review of Jan Gunnarsson and Olle Bloehm's marvelous little book, Hostmanship.) Making people Welcome is not just for when they come by for a visit. It is how new people join, and become full participants and contributors. The fewer the barriers to leadership, the higher the level of hospitality that is practiced. Hospitality is concerned with creating an open and opportunity rich environment for people. This is an action of gratitude because we are creating an environment that anticipates reasons to say thanks and offer recognition for the contributions of people.

It is in this kind of environment that people find the opportunity to Create Goodness out of their own sense of purpose or call to take initiative to make a difference.  When a person discovers and fulfills their purpose, that discover that without the assistance from others, some known and others unknown, that this fulfillment is possible. A result of this response in gratitude is that people find that their lives are Personally Meaningful, Socially Fulfilled, and the are Making a Difference that Matters.

When your team can identify how to develop your practices based on the Five Actions of Gratitude, you'll begin to see that many of the issues that formerly inhibited your work together begin to be resolved.

This is a conversation guide not a prescriptive formula. You and your team must decide what each of these actions mean in your context. The conversation will lead to a serious consideration of the importance of your relationships with one another, and how to make them work better.

Real Life Leadership:Get your team to work together by agreeing on goals, procedures

Here's my latest Real Life Leadership column - Get your team to work together by agreeing on goals, procedures.

I wrote about this topic a couple weeks ago in "What do you do when the boss hands you my column to read?"

I have a lot of fun writing the RLL column. The fact that people use it as a tool for improvement is very gratifying.

If you have an idea about how to use a tool like this, leave a comment. I may write on it in a July column.

Real Life Leadership: To lead effectively, follow example of 19th century explorers Lewis & Clark

Here's this week's Real Life Leadership column - To lead effectively, follow example of 19th century explorers Lewis and Clark.Img_0076

The picture to the right is the Marias confluence.  The Missouri flows off to the lower right, and the Marias flows left. I'm looking in an East/SE direction here. More  of my pictures from this location can be found here.

Lewis & Clark is a great story about leadership, team work, organization, trial and change. If you've never read anything on them, read Stephen Ambrose's Undaunted Courage. During the Bicentennial years, I wrote an occasional blog that you can find here.

The best Lewis & Clark site on the internet is Discovering Lewis & Clark. Go here to see a Quicktime Panorama 360 degree shot of this location. It gives a splendid sense of this stop along the Lewis & Clark trail. Discovering Lewis & Clark is well worth an extended visit and your support.

Real Life Leadership: Humility, tenacity good character traits in building a successful team

My latest Real Life Leadership column is online. This week it is Humility, tenacity good character traits in building a successful team.

In an earlier posting, I wrote about Peter Grimm, a family friend and world-class sailor.

Today's column was inspired by some of the things he told me about what team work on a racing yacht is like.

The further I go along in my learning about leadership, the more I realize that most of the ways we think about leadership is counterproductive. Humility is a classic example.

Jim Collins celebrates humility as an integral ingredient in being a Level-5 leader. Tom Peters on the other hand loves leaders who are audacious, and has been quite vocal in his disagreement with Collins on this point. What this shows me is that we tend to over simplify ideas, like humility.

The caricature of the humble person is the wet-blanket whom everyone steps on.  That person isn't humble, just weak. Humility is character trait that is essential if you want relationships to work.  Peter speaks about people who listen as examples of humility.  This means that listening isn't a passive exercise, but an active one. It requires a process of analysis, reflection and response.

One more comment ... for those of you who are familiar with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, you'll know that one of the designations is Introvert/Extravert.  The Extravert is often, not always, the most vocal person in a group. That is partly due to their (our) preference for thinking out loud.  Introverts, on the other hand, prefer to think before they speak. This distinctive was made quite evident to me many years ago when I took a group of college students to a teamwork challenge courses.  There are many simulations that force a group of people to work as a team in order to achieve their goal.  One of these initiatives is called Acid River. You get the idea that the team has to cross an expanse that is a river of acid. They have materials to use, and must communicate in order to find the right way. As it happened, on one of the teams was three men and a woman. The guys each had ideas flying all over the place. They'd have way try one, and then one would interupt, and they half-way try something else. Nothing worked because they weren't working as a team. After 30 minutes, this quiet young woman finally spoke up, made a couple comments, and within five minutes, they had completed the initiative. What happened was this woman was the introvert of the group. She listened, processed, and came up with the answer, and then waited until these guys had run out of ideas.  It was a great lesson in teamwork and leadership, for all of us.

Humility is an important part of leadership and teamwork. I'm planning a RLL column in November on Ira Williams' new book on humility called Speak Softly. I encourage you to read the book. 

Sailing with a World Class Leadership Team

First Posted September 1, 2007.


In 1987, for a period of about two weeks, I stayed up most of the night watching big 12 meter yachts compete in the America’s Cup race. ESPN, in its first decade of life, broadcast the series live from Freemantle, Australia. I couldn’t get enough of it.  The energy, the danger, the team work, the margins of error and success, all contributed to an impression of yacht racing that has stayed with me ‘til this day.

What captivated me about these yachts was the ability of their crews to push them to the edge of their capacity. Because of the cameras on board, viewers could get a really close up view of what goes on during a race. It was teamwork on the edge of chaos, at the edge of disaster, and at the edge of the physical limitations of man and technology.  The boats would tact to gain wind advantage, and cross by the stern just feet away from another boat. Here's a video of the Volvo Ocean Race.

Recently, I spent some time with a sailor who is the chief of a crew that competes in the SuperYacht class. Peter Grimm of Doyle Sails in Ft. Lauderdale is a family friend. Peter sails in 100 races a year, all over the world. The accompanying pictures were taken of the boat that his team sailed called Perseus. I asked Peter about what leading a competitive team in the Super Yacht category is like. There is a crew of 27 divided into three teams. Each team has a team leader who stays in constant contact with Peter. A boat like the Perseus will have a staff of six who maintain the boat and serve guests. During the competition, the owner and a few guests will sail along with the racing crew.


I asked Peter about his role as leader of the crew. He quickly knew exactly what to say. There is no ambiguity in his mind about what it takes to be a world class sailing team. Here’s his description of the leadership qualities that he looks for from his team leaders.

Anticipation. When they are sailing in the chaos of competition, there is little room for error and no time to reflect on what is the best option at that moment. So, Peter expects his team leaders to anticipate his next move. Most of his team have been with him for 15 years. They know one another and his team leaders know how he thinks. For example, he wants his team leaders to anticipate when they will tack (make a turn) and prepare his team for that moment when Peter gives his command to tack.  Anticipating that decision saves precious time, and may be the difference between winning and losing.


Calm under fire. Peter wants his team leaders to have a cool head in the heat of competition. If his team leader gets overly excited, that surge of adrenaline gets translated to his team, and the team’s edge is lost. Adrenline-rush impacts brain functioning. This is a physiological phenomenon that performers in other fields, like law enforcement and combat, experience, where fear and exhilaration accompany a situation of crisis and chaos. So, team leaders with cool heads keep their teams cool, that way the can communicate better, work in a tighter, more coordinated fashion.

Follow through on assignments without question. When Peter told me this, my first thought was of blind obedience. He explained that there is no time for discussion during competition. When he makes a decision, and he tells his team leaders to implement it, he wants guys who will do just that. In other words, on a sailing team, the roles are clearly defined, and the crew chief is the decision maker.

Tenacity.  Peter’s team leaders need to have a mindset that no problem or obstacle is insurmountable. The challenge on a sailing yacht is never let the difficulty of the race to persuade your team to believe that all is lost.

Humility.  Odd that humility be paired with tenacity, but this is what Peter says is essential. He says, that on a racing yacht, “losing is normal; tomorrow, no one will remember who lost or won.” Humility in this context is the recognition that perfect is the goal that is never achieved. There are too many variables that make absolute perfection possible. So, it is important for team leaders to realize that they will make mistakes, and have the humility not to let that failure affect their performance.

Preparation and Planning.  One of the aspects of leadership Peter and I discussed was how his team prepares for a race. As the crew chief, he says that he has to care about his crew. He needs to know them, understand their personalities, know their life situation, and be able to adjust to their individual situations. As his crew begins their preparations for a race, he discusses with them goals and PeterGrimm6
expectations. He told me that it is important to be realistic. If it is realistic to expect to be finish in the top ten out of a hundred boats, then that is their goal. They set a realistic goal, and then plan for how they will achieve it. They discuss all aspects of what takes place during a race. 

As stated above, he expects his team leaders to follow his commands because there is no time for discussion in the midst of a race. However, he does expect his crew to be honest and forthright. He told me of one crewmember who was not going to race in a particular competition because of the birth of a child. This guy though kept up from home on what was happening, even reading thoroughly the competition rules that were posted online. He emailed Peter to check a specific phrasing of a rule because it was a bit different than what they expected. Suggestions and performance critique are expected, but typically are given following training runs and competitions.

Here’s what I take away from Peter Grimm’s description of what it means to be a world-class sailing crew leader. High performing teams need to incorporate two seemingly contrary characteristics.

First, each member must perform at the highest possible level within their assigned role and responsibilities. A crewmember who is distracted is a danger to the whole boat, and possibly the other boats in the race.

Second, each member has to take the personal initiative to make the team the best it can be. They do this by observing and offering comments to improve team performance. The reality is that leadership as initiative is required of all members of a team. The crew leader’s job is one of preparation, coordination and execution.

Metaphors of Teamwork

I'm on holiday in Scotland, hence the lack of posting.

As we've been traveling, I've had some random thoughts in mind, and one has to do with how we talk about team work.  In particular the metaphors we use. For example here are some of the one's I've heard.

"heading cats"

"shepherding sheep"

"pack of dogs"

sports-teams descriptors

"we're a family"

This interests me, and I'd like to find out what you think. Here are the two questions that I have.

1. Other metaphors of team work.

2. Your understanding of what these ideas actually mean when we speak of teams.

The one that I've been using and developing lately is the concept of a team as a collection of metal balls on a table top.  The leader's responsibility is to move all the balls to the other side without losing any.  If you push from behind, through the middle, you split the team, and losing them. If you get out and front, the only ones that follow are those that have a magnetic attaction to you.  What I've concluded is that we  have to create a magnetic force that binds all the balls together. 

In an organization, what is that binding power?  Is it the organization's mission?  How about a compelling vision for the future?  In reality, I think that what holds the members of a team together are the values that they share.  If respect and trust are important to people individually, then, think how important it is that you create an environment of respect and trust as a team.

Send me thoughts. I'll be back in the States in a few days, and say more about our travels in Scotland. I'm not Johnson and Bosworth, but I know that I've had as great a time as they did long ago. 

slainte mhath (Gaelic for "good health", pronounced "slange ju va")